Victorian era Queen Victoria — The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's rule between and which signified the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. Scholars debate whether the Victorian period—as defined by a variety of sensibilities and political concerns that have come to be associated with the Victorians—actually begins with the passage of the Reform Act
The rise of modern science The authority of phenomena Even as Dante was writing his great work, deep forces were threatening the unitary cosmos he celebrated. The pace of technological innovation began to quicken.
Particularly in Italy, the political demands of the time gave new importance to technology, and a new profession emerged, that of civil and military engineer. These people faced practical problems that demanded practical solutions.
Leonardo da Vinci is certainly the most famous of them, though he was much more as well. A painter of genius, he closely studied human anatomy in order to give verisimilitude to his paintings.
As a sculptor, he mastered the difficult techniques of casting metal. As a producer-director of the form of Renaissance dramatic production called the masque, he devised complicated machinery to create special effects.
But it was as a military engineer that he observed the path of a mortar bomb being lobbed over a city wall and insisted that the projectile did not follow two straight lines—a slanted ascent followed by a vertical drop—as Aristotle had said it must.
Leonardo and his colleagues needed to know nature truly; no amount of book learning could substitute for actual experience, nor could books impose their authority upon phenomena.
The hold of ancient philosophy was too strong to be broken lightly, but a healthy skepticism began to emerge. The first really serious blow to the traditional acceptance of ancient authorities was the discovery of the New World at the end of the 15th century.
Ptolemy, the great astronomer and geographer, had insisted that only the three continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia could exist, and Christian scholars from St.
Augustine on had accepted it, for otherwise men would have to walk upside down at the antipodes.
Augustine, and a host of other authorities were wrong. The dramatic expansion of the known world also served to stimulate the study of mathematics, for wealth and fame awaited those who could turn navigation into a real and trustworthy science.
In large part the Renaissance was a time of feverish intellectual activity devoted to the complete recovery of the ancient heritage. To the Aristotelian texts that had been the foundation of medieval thought were added translations of Plato, with his vision of mathematical harmonies, of Galen, with his experiments in physiology and anatomy, and, perhaps most important of all, of Archimedes, who showed how theoretical physics could be done outside the traditional philosophical framework.
The results were subversive. The search for antiquity turned up a peculiar bundle of manuscripts that added a decisive impulse to the direction in which Renaissance science was moving.
These manuscripts were taken to have been written by or to report almost at first hand the activities of the legendary priest, prophet, and sage Hermes Trismegistos. Hermes was supposedly a contemporary of Moses, and the Hermetic writings contained an alternative story of creation that gave humans a far more prominent role than the traditional account.
God had made humankind fully in his image: Humans could imitate God by creating. The reward for success would be eternal life and youth, as well as freedom from want and disease. It was a heady vision, and it gave rise to the notion that, through science and technology, humankind could bend nature to its wishes.
This is essentially the modern view of science, and it should be emphasized that it occurs only in Western civilization. It is probably this attitude that permitted the West to surpass the East, after centuries of inferiority, in the exploitation of the physical world.
The Hermetic tradition also had more specific effects. Inspired, as is now known, by late Platonist mysticism, the Hermetic writers had rhapsodized on enlightenment and on the source of light, the Sun.
Marsilio Ficinothe 15th-century Florentine translator of both Plato and the Hermetic writings, composed a treatise on the Sun that came close to idolatry.
A young Polish student visiting Italy at the turn of the 16th century was touched by this current. Back in Poland, he began to work on the problems posed by the Ptolemaic astronomical system.
With the blessing of the church, which he served formally as a canon, Nicolaus Copernicus set out to modernize the astronomical apparatus by which the church made such important calculations as the proper dates for Easter and other festivals.
The scientific revolution Copernicus Inas he lay on his deathbed, Copernicus finished reading the proofs of his great work; he died just as it was published.
The scientific revolution radically altered the conditions of thought and of material existence in which the human race lives, and its effects are not yet exhausted. The astronomer is shown between a crucifix and a celestial globe, symbols of his vocation and work.British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government.
Aug 01, · British Empire: British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies—colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government.
Learn more about the British Empire in this article. Sep 27, · HSTCMP History of the British Empire and Commonwealth Since (5) I&S Britain in the Caribbean, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific; and the settlement, economic development, and political evolution of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
An analysis of Polanyi's economics is in the introduction to George Dalton, he immigrated first to Great Britain () and then to the United States and Canada Trade and Market in the Early Empires: Economies in History and Theory. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Stanfield, J. Ron.
(). 3 days ago · Just adding one additional comment, because history is interlinked throughou Eurasia, the collapse of The Roman Empire was due to many internal . Great Britain’s first empire flourished during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The East India Company was given its Royal Charter and its monopoly on trade with India in