Within minutes, one boy stopped, a terrified look on his face.
Taking aim at belly fat Published: August, Unlike fat parked on the hips and thighs, fat around the middle produces substances that can create serious health risks.
No matter what your body shape, excess fat isn't good for your health. But saddlebags and ballooning bellies are not equivalent.
When it comes to body fat, location counts, and each year brings new evidence that the fat lying deep within the abdomen is more perilous than the fat you can pinch with your fingers.
If you poke your belly, the fat that feels soft is subcutaneous fat. It's found in the spaces surrounding the liver, intestines, and other organs. It's also stored in the omentum, an apron-like flap of tissue that lies under the belly muscles and blankets the intestines.
The omentum gets harder and thicker as it fills with fat. Although visceral fat makes up only a small proportion of body fat, it's a key player in a variety of health problems. As women go through their middle years, their proportion of fat to body weight tends to increase — more than it does in men — and fat storage begins favoring the upper body over the hips and thighs.
Even if you don't actually gain weight, your waistline can grow by inches as visceral fat Case study on asthma out against the abdominal wall. Visceral fat lies in the spaces between the abdominal organs and in an apron of tissue called the omentum.
Subcutaneous fat is located between the skin and the outer abdominal wall. The trouble with visceral fat Body fat, or adipose tissue, was once regarded as little more than a storage depot for fat blobs waiting passively to be used for energy.
But research has shown that fat cells — particularly visceral fat cells — are biologically active. Kahn, chief of the division of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.
Before researchers recognized that fat acts as an endocrine gland, they thought that the main risk of visceral fat was influencing the production of cholesterol by releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream and liver. We now know that there's far more to the story.
Researchers have identified a host of chemicals that link visceral fat to a surprisingly wide variety of diseases. Subcutaneous fat produces a higher proportion of beneficial molecules, and visceral fat a higher proportion of molecules with potentially deleterious health effects.
Visceral fat makes more of the proteins called cytokines, which can trigger low-level inflammation, a risk factor for heart disease and other chronic conditions. It also produces a precursor to angiotensin, a protein that causes blood vessels to constrict and blood pressure to rise.
Researchers at Harvard have discovered that, compared with subcutaneous fat, visceral fat secretes more of retinol-binding protein 4 RBP4a molecule that increases insulin resistance. As the volume of visceral fat increases, so do levels of RBP4. The connection is so strong that researchers are developing a blood test for RBP4 as a way for physicians to measure an individual's store of visceral fat.
Subcutaneous fat produces more of certain beneficial molecules, including the hormone leptin, which acts on the brain to suppress appetite and burn stored fat. Adiponectin, another hormone produced mainly by subcutaneous fat, helps protect against diabetes by regulating the processing of fats and sugars; it also has an anti-inflammatory effect on the linings of blood vessels.
Adiponectin is made by visceral fat, too, but production falls as fat volume increases. Gut check A tape measure is your best home option for keeping tabs on visceral fat. Measure your waistline at the level of the navel — not at the narrowest part of the torso — and always measure in the same place.
According to official guidelines, the bottom of the tape measure should be level with the top of the right hip bone, or ilium — see the illustration — at the point where the ilium intersects a line dropped vertically from the center of the armpit.
Don't suck in your gut or pull the tape tight enough to compress the area.
In women, a waist circumference of 35 inches or larger is generally considered a sign of excess visceral fat, but that may not apply if your overall body size is large. Rather than focus on a single reading or absolute cut-off, keep an eye on whether your waist is growing are your pants getting snug at the waist?
That should give you a good idea of whether you're gaining unhealthy visceral fat.Nationally Consistent Collection of Data on School Students with Disability Hypothetical case study – Catherine Catherine is a year 4 student at a small remote primary school.
Asthma is a growing problem in the United States, with nearly 25 million people suffering from it. An asthma attack affects a person’s ability to breathe, and in extreme cases, can cause death. In Autumn , with energy prices soaring, the Coutinho family volunteered to help expand Time to Change’s understanding of the real savings that new fridge freezer technology can bring.
Case Studies on ED Management of Asthma Carlos Camargo, MD, DrPH Emergency Medicine, MGH Channing Laboratory, BWH Harvard Medical School. Author: Sara Parker, BHS, RRT-NPS, AE-C Respiratory Therapy School of Health Professions University of Missouri-Columbia.
CHEST Annual Meeting Abstracts. Find abstracts of original investigations from slides and posters presented at CHEST , held October , in San Antonio, Texas, featuring essential updates in lung diseases, improving patient care, and trends in morbidity and mortality..
Browse the CHEST Annual Meeting abstracts.