Avoiding "prototype" and average load data aggregation errors Advantages of MAISY Hourly Loads Databases MAISY Hourly Loads Databases have been developed from information on more than 5 million residential and commercial utility customers to provide a statistically representative sample of customers for each state, service area and other geographic areas. Each customer record includes detailed customer characteristics including total building hourly loads for electricity, natural gas and oil along with end-use hourly loads for space heating, air conditioning, ventilation, water heating, lighting, process, and other end uses. Hourly loads are available for day-types as well as for full 8, hours through the year. Jackson Associates provides its clients with hourly load data to meet a variety of needs in both regulated and competitive markets.
More technical details may be obtained from official specification as published by the Bluetooth SIG. Note that power consumption is not part of the Bluetooth specification.
Advertising and discovery[ edit ] BLE devices are detected through a procedure based on broadcasting advertising packets. This is done using 3 Energy consumption profiles channels frequenciesin order to reduce interference.
The advertising device sends a packet on at least one of these three channels, with a repetition period called the advertising interval. For reducing the chance of multiple consecutive collisions, a random delay of up to 10 milliseconds is added to each advertising interval.
The scanner listens to the channel for a duration called the scan window, which is periodically repeated every scan interval. The discovery latency is therefore determined by a probabilistic process and depends on the three parameters viz.
The discovery scheme of BLE adopts a periodic-interval based technique, for which upper bounds on the discovery latency can be inferred for most parametrizations.
While the discovery latencies of BLE can be approximated by models  for purely periodic interval-based protocols, the random delay added to each advertising interval and the three-channel discovery can cause deviations from these predictions, or potentially lead to unbounded latencies for certain parametrizations.
The application programming interface offered by a Bluetooth Low Energy aware operating system will typically be based around GATT concepts. Client A device that initiates GATT commands and requests, and accepts responses, for example, a computer or smartphone.
Server A device that receives GATT commands and requests, and returns responses, for example, a temperature sensor. Characteristic A data value transferred between client and server, for example, the current battery voltage. Service A collection of related characteristics, which operate together to perform a particular function.
For instance, the Health Thermometer service includes characteristics for a temperature measurement value, and a time interval between measurements.
Descriptor A descriptor provides additional information about a characteristic. For instance, a temperature value characteristic may have an indication of its units e. Celsiusand the maximum and minimum values which the sensor can measure.
Descriptors are optional — each characteristic can have any number of descriptors. Some service and characteristic values are used for administrative purposes — for instance, the model name and serial number can be read as standard characteristics within the Generic Access service.
Services may also include other services as sub-functions; the main functions of the device are so-called primary services, and the auxiliary functions they refer to are secondary services.
Identifiers[ edit ] Services, characteristics, and descriptors are collectively referred to as attributes, and identified by UUIDs.
For efficiency, these identifiers are represented as bit or bit values in the protocol, rather than the bits required for a full UUID.
For example, the Device Information service has the short code 0xA, rather than A The full list is kept in the Bluetooth Assigned Numbers document online. Discover UUIDs for all primary services Find a service with a given UUID Find secondary services for a given primary service Discover all characteristics for a given service Find characteristics matching a given UUID Read all descriptors for a particular characteristic Commands are also provided to read data transfer from server to client and write from client to server the values of characteristics: Write operations always identify the characteristic by handle, but have a choice of whether or not a response from the server is required.
Finally, GATT offers notifications and indications. The client may request a notification for a particular characteristic from the server. The server can then send the value to the client whenever it becomes available.
For instance, a temperature sensor server may notify its client every time it takes a measurement. An indication is similar to a notification, except that it requires a response from the client, as confirmation that it has received the message.
Battery impact[ edit ] Bluetooth Low Energy chipset power consumption profiles with different configuration parameters, as per The Hitchhikers Guide to iBeacon Hardware by Aislelabs.
Devices with peripheral and central roles have different power requirements. A study by beacon software company, Aislelabsreported that peripherals, such as proximity beacons, usually function for 1—2 years with a 1,mAh coin cell battery.
In contrast, a continuous scan for the same beacons in central role can consume 1, mAh in a few hours. Android and iOS devices also have very different battery impact depending on type of scans and number of Bluetooth Low Energy devices in the vicinity.Nuclear Power in Russia (Updated October ) Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for an expanded role of nuclear energy, including development of new reactor technology.
Your electricity profile class is based on your business’s electricity consumption pattern and load profile. How much energy you use and when you use it will determine which class your business is . energy consumption at sub-regional levels (North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa) highlighting differences in consumption patterns thus presenting the case for a differentiated.
A wealth of numbers and statistics describe the energy generation and consumption of nation states. This factsheet provides a range of charts (and data links) about the status of Germany’s energy mix, as well as developments in energy and power production and usage since This study provides daily energy use proﬁles of four major household appliances: refrigerator, clotheswasher,clothesdryer,anddishwasher,throughanalyzingdisaggregatedenergyusedatacollected for 40 single family homes in Austin, TX.
Energy/Hourly Load Databases In addition to annual energy use, psychographic information, firmographic information, equipment, building, operating characteristics and other customer information, MAISY Databases include hourly electric, natural gas and fuel oil loads for each customer record.