Civil code procedures on family and property and the absence of jury trial were attributable to Spanish influences, but most important statutes governing trade and commerce, labor relations, taxation, banking and currency, and governmental operations were of United States derivation, introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. Judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. The Judicial Reorganization Act provides for four main levels of courts and several special courts. At the local level are metropolitan trial courts, municipal trial courts, and municipal circuit trial courts.
Interrorist attacks occurred in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ISIS-affiliated operatives attempted but failed to conduct additional attacks in Indonesia and the Philippines, and a number of other terrorist attacks were foiled by arresting or deporting individuals who were in various stages of attack planning in these countries, as well as Australia and Malaysia.
The flow of foreign terrorist fighters to Iraq or Syria from the region declined throughoutconsistent with global trends. As a result, regional concerns shifted to foreign terrorist fighters potentially returning to Southeast Asia and using the operational training, skills, connections, and experience gained in Iraq or Syria to launch domestic attacks.
Governments in East Asia and the Pacific continued to work to strengthen legal frameworks, investigate and prosecute terrorism cases, increase regional cooperation and information sharing, and address critical border and aviation security gaps throughout the year.
Cooperation between domestic law enforcement and judicial authorities throughout Southeast Asia, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, resulted in high numbers of terrorism-related arrests and, in many cases, successful prosecutions.
Despite these efforts, Southeast Asia remained a target for terrorist group recruitment. East Asian countries actively participated in regional and international efforts to counter terrorism.
The Japanese government continued to participate in international counterterrorism efforts at global, regional, and bilateral levels.
Japan identified counterterrorism as one of its priorities for its G-7 presidency and joined the UN Security Council as an elected member for In July, the XUAR became the only provincial level government to pass specific implementing measures of a new counterterrorism law.
InAustralia continued to strengthen counterterrorism laws; investigate and disrupt suspected terrorists; and maintain high levels of cooperation with the United States and international partners, including through the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS. Australia plays a major role in the coalition as a leading contributor of military support, humanitarian assistance, and efforts to disrupt foreign terrorist fighters.
In July, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced that Australia would expand training to paramilitary police agencies, including Iraqi federal and local police and border guard forces. Additionally, Australia works with a number of partners in Southeast Asia to build capacities and strengthen the response to the foreign terrorist fighters and ISIS threats in the region.
Michael Keenan, the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Counterterrorism, noted in November that the preeminent terrorist threat in Australia is from individuals or small groups who use simple attack methodologies. These lone offender threats were not exclusive to violent Islamist extremism; a right-wing violent extremist was also charged with terrorism-related offenses in Melbourne.
Australia experienced one terrorist-related attack and disrupted five plots. The attack involved a year-old man inspired by ISIS, who non-fatally stabbed a year-old man in Sydney before being arrested and charged with attempted murder and terrorism offenses.
Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: The Australian government continued to apply its comprehensive counterterrorism legislation against domestic threats and passed additional legislation to strengthen national security protections.
In December, the Australian Parliament passed the Criminal Code Amendment High Risk Terrorist Offenders Billwhich allows for the ongoing detention of high-risk terrorist offenders, approaching the end of their custodial sentences, but who pose an unacceptable risk of committing a serious terrorism offense if released.
Another amendment this year to the Commonwealth Criminal Code empowered the Australian military to target a broader range of ISIS operatives, consistent with international law.
In July, Australia launched the Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission ACICwhich combined Australian law enforcement and criminal information agencies to provide a broader picture of imminent threats, and help identify links between organized crime and national security investigations, including foreign fighters, terrorists, extremists, and their supporters.
Following the July terrorist attack in the French city of Nice, Australia completed a government review of soft targets to identify vulnerabilities and was in the process of finalizing a plan to address this issue by the end of Approximately Australian passports have been canceled or refused for citizens attempting to travel or who have traveled to Iraq or Syria.
Australia also shares port information with regional partners throughout Southeast Asia. More than Australians have traveled to fight with terrorist groups in Iraq or Syria, and approximately people in Australia are being investigated for providing support to terrorists.
Australia passed a law aimed at countering foreign terrorist fighters in and increased the resources and authorities of law enforcement and security services, enabling a number of foreign terrorist fighter arrests.
Since Septembera total of 56 people, including six juveniles, have been sentenced or are facing terrorism-related charges as a result of 24 counterterrorism operations.
Significant law enforcement actions in included: In May, five Melbourne men were arrested in Queensland for allegedly planning to leave Australia in a small boat to join the ISIS-affiliated terrorist groups in the Philippines.
They were charged with making preparations for incursions into foreign countries to engage in hostile activities.CONSULAR OUTREACH PROGRAM.
The Embassy/Consulate General conducts regular consular outreach missions to bring its various consular services . The Department of Transportation (DOTr; Filipino: Kagawarán ng Transportasyon) is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the maintenance and expansion of viable, efficient, and dependable transportation systems as effective instruments for national recovery and economic progress..
The department is responsible for the country's land, air, sea communications. The READY Project is a collaborative effort of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Government of Australia Australian Aid (AusAID)..
It aims to address the problem of disaster risk management at the local level by empowering the most vulnerable municipalities and cities in the country and enable them to undertake disaster.
Judicial Department. Prepared by: Ma. Elena K. Parayno It is the power to apply the laws to contest or disputes concerning legally recognized rights or duties between the state and private persons or between individual litigants in cases properly brought before the judicial tribunals.5/5(8).
International Family Law,International Divorce,Child Custody,Jeremy D. Morley,The International Family Law Office,New York City Attorney,international.
NAMRIA is mandated to provide the public with mapmaking services and to act as the central mapping agency, depository, and distribution facility for natural resources data in .