Scorpus and Google Scholar. The hunt has included world-wide diaries and documents with the day of the month restrictions of to to guarantee that all grounds and information is current. Merely those articles published in English and available through the University of Dundee library were considered for inclusion.
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My thesis committee has been flexible, informative, and extremely helpful. I would thank Dr. Nick Miller and Ms.
Gillian Cavagan the Office Manager of my school department. I am grateful for the efforts of Drs. I am thanking Dr. Ashraf Abu alaiz the speech language pathology consultant and all my friend and colleague for there help and support; they have been the front line in this effort.
I am thanking all the Neurology department in King Khalid Hospital specially the nurses and the clinical nutrition for their help. The early detection of dysphagia in such patients reduces such complications, hospital stay, and overall healthcare expenditures.
The objective of this study was to detect and manage dysphagia in the first few days after stroke by formal swallowing assessments. The ethical committee of the hospital approved the study. The study involved forty consecutively admitted patients with acute.
The results mainly indicated that patients with dysphagia had a 6-fold higher risk of developing a chest infection compared to those without swallowing problems. The SSA was found to be a simple, safe, and effective procedure in the detection of dysphagia in the first few days after stroke.
This study supports the use of the SSA by ward speech pathologists as a screening tool for dysphagia in patients with acute stroke. Such condition progress to various impairments and one of that is dysphagia, which is the difficulty of swallowing.
Dysphagia has well-dcumented risks; hence, risking almost half of the population to various complications, such as with frequent aspiration and upon progression such as aspiration leading to chest infections that may be life-threatening Schmidt et al. There is enough evidence to suggest that the early detection of dysphagia in patients with acute stroke reduces such complications, reduces hospital stay and overall healthcare expenditures Martino, Pron, Diamant, Several studies have described the utility and validity of the SSA Smithard et al, ; Schmidt et al.
The study was performed after the approval of the ethical committee of the hospital.
Medical and nursing team notes were assessed and the results were compared with independent assessment of swallowing safety made on days 1 and 7 by the speech language therapist using SSA.
Scope and Limitation The objective of this study is the detection and management of dysphagia in the first few days after stroke by a pre- and post-intervention study using a standardized bedside swallowing assessment.
Primarily, the study aims to validate the effectiveness of SSA in the detection of swallowing impairment, dysphagia. It also employs the gathering of literature review that illustrates the data organization of normal physiology in swallowing mechanism, complications that may arise in impairment of such process, and the abnormalities involved, specifically dysphagia.
In addition, the study utilizes these data in order to provide differentiation of the presenting health problem against the standard physiological pattern of the body as directed in the review of literature. The following are the imposed objectives of the course research: To be able to provide the supporting data that validate if the procedure SSA is an effective diagnostic means for Dysphagia detection specifically for Acute stoke as supported by validated evidences and specifications that clearly depict the effectiveness of such procedure.
To be able to represent the methodology involved as well as the fundamental components, such as statistics, implications, and inferences that are involved in methodology. To be able to provide the identified gaps and problems identified during the course research processes, particularly data validation, statistical discrepancies and problems in methodology.
Health and Clinical Management The occurrence of any chest infection was diagnosed and documented by the medical team. All nursing personnel in the neurology team have taken short courses in swallowing rehabilitation rehabilitation with nasogastric tube or with gastrostomy tube along with qualified speech language therapists who perform the swallowing assessment.
The neurology team carried out standardized medical assessments to classify the stroke and to estimate the severity. Stroke can produce a wide variety of neurological impairments in the acute stages.
These problems can by itself or in combination, leads to malnutrition, prolonged hospital inpatient stay and increased complication, and mortality rates Perry, Swallowing physiology can be affected by cerebral, cerebellar, or brain stem strokes.
While computerized tomography of the brain in stroke patients with dysphagia commonly shows unilateral lesions, MRI may frequently reveal lesions in the nonsymptomatic hemisphere Nilsson et al.
Although brain stem strokes are less common than cortical lesions, they cause the greatest swallowing difficulties by affecting the sensations of the mouth, tongue, and cheek, timing in the trigger of the pharyngeal swallow, laryngeal elevation, glottic closure, and cricopharyngeal relaxation Ertekin, ; Martino, Whatever the location of the lesion, stroke occurs more commonly in the elderly Devroey,and the normal age-related swallowing changes worsens the dysphagia due to stroke.
Aspiration Dysphagia with aspiration is common in the early period following acute stroke. Among stoke patients with dysphagia, one study Chen et al.
The risk of aspiration has long been viewed as a significant complication of dysphagia; however, the ability to predict aspiration pneumonia based the presence of dysphagia has not beet conclusively demonstrated Langmore, p. Two additional studies of dysphagia after stroke have been reported.
Another large study Mann et. This makes dysphagia a common as well as a significant abnormality Bogousslavsky and Caplan, p.Hirota N, Konaka K, Ono T, Tamine K, Kondo J, Hori K, Yoshimuta Y, Maeda Y, Sakoda S and Naritomi H () Reduced Tongue Pressure Against the Hard Palate on the Paralyzed Side During Swallowing Predicts Dysphagia in Patients With Acute Stroke, Stroke, , .
of Dysphagia After Stroke.. Emilia Michou, Ayodele Sasegbon, and Shaheen Hamdy Sensory Stimulation acute stress and exercise, and decrease in response to chronic stress.
The decrease in salivary concen-tration is . The time post-stroke that the study was conducted (from admission to 48 hours) to ensure only hyperacute and acute stroke dysphagia screening tools are identified.
Any significant change in the participant's condition between the index and reference tests being performed. The definition of dysphagia used by the study. More Essay Examples on Education Rubric.
ABSTRACT Dysphagia, or problems with swallowing, is common after acute stroke, and there is a risk of aspiration pneumonia and other complications. Nov 11, · Dysphagia affects up to half of acute stroke patients and carries a threefold to sevenfold increased risk of aspiration pneumonia.
With the subsequent mortality associated with pneumonia, dysphagia has been recognised as an independent predictor of mortality after stroke. Standardized swallowing assessment (SSA) in Acute Stroke Essay.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. Many professionals contributed to the completion of this research effort - Standardized swallowing assessment (SSA) in Acute Stroke Essay introduction. I would like to thank my supervisor Professor David Howard Degree Programme Director of School of Education Communication and Language Sciences in the .