There are different types of cells depending on the organism, each with a distinct structure.
Cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles Subcellular components All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotichave a membrane that envelops the cell, regulates what moves in and out selectively permeableand maintains the electric potential of the cell.
Inside the membrane, the cytoplasm takes up most of the cell's volume. All cells except red blood cells which lack a cell nucleus and most organelles to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin possess DNAthe hereditary material of genesand RNAcontaining the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymesthe cell's primary machinery.
There are also other kinds of biomolecules in cells. This article lists these primary cellular componentsthen briefly describes their function. Cell membrane Detailed diagram of lipid bilayer cell membrane The cell membraneor plasma membrane, is a biological membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell.
In animals, the plasma membrane is the outer boundary of the cell, while in plants and prokaryotes it is usually covered by a cell wall. This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of phospholipidswhich are amphiphilic partly hydrophobic and partly hydrophilic.
Hence, the layer is called a phospholipid bilayeror sometimes a fluid mosaic membrane. Embedded within this membrane is a variety of protein molecules that act as channels and pumps that move different molecules into and out of the cell.
Cell surface membranes also contain receptor proteins that allow cells to detect external signaling molecules such as hormones. Cytoskeleton A fluorescent image of an endothelial cell.
Nuclei are stained blue, mitochondria are stained red, and microfilaments are stained green.
The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell's shape; anchors organelles in place; helps during endocytosisthe uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesisthe separation of daughter cells after cell division ; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility.
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is composed of microfilamentsintermediate filaments and microtubules. There are a great number of proteins associated with them, each controlling a cell's structure by directing, bundling, and aligning filaments.
The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric molecule called tubulin. Intermediate filaments are heteropolymers whose subunits vary among the cell types in different tissues. But some of the subunit protein of intermediate filaments include vimentindesminlamin lamins A, B and Ckeratin multiple acidic and basic keratinsneurofilament proteins NF—L, NF—M.
Genetic material Two different kinds of genetic material exist: Cells use DNA for their long-term information storage. The biological information contained in an organism is encoded in its DNA sequence.
Prokaryotic genetic material is organized in a simple circular bacterial chromosome in the nucleoid region of the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic genetic material is divided into different,  linear molecules called chromosomes inside a discrete nucleus, usually with additional genetic material in some organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts see endosymbiotic theory. A human cell has genetic material contained in the cell nucleus the nuclear genome and in the mitochondria the mitochondrial genome.
In humans the nuclear genome is divided into 46 linear DNA molecules called chromosomesincluding 22 homologous chromosome pairs and a pair of sex chromosomes.
Although the mitochondrial DNA is very small compared to nuclear chromosomes,  it codes for 13 proteins involved in mitochondrial energy production and specific tRNAs. Foreign genetic material most commonly DNA can also be artificially introduced into the cell by a process called transfection.
This can be transient, if the DNA is not inserted into the cell's genomeor stable, if it is. Certain viruses also insert their genetic material into the genome. There are several types of organelles in a cell. Some such as the nucleus and golgi apparatus are typically solitary, while others such as mitochondriachloroplastsperoxisomes and lysosomes can be numerous hundreds to thousands.
The cytosol is the gelatinous fluid that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles. The central and rightmost cell are in interphaseso their DNA is diffuse and the entire nuclei are labelled. The cell on the left is going through mitosis and its chromosomes have condensed.
A cell's information center, the cell nucleus is the most conspicuous organelle found in a eukaryotic cell.Functions of Cells or Functions of Cell Parts CELL STRUCTURE LOCATION DESCRIPTION FUNCTION OF CELL Cell Wall Plant, Fungi, & Bacteria, but not animal cells Outer layer Rigid & strong Made of cellulose Support (grow tall) Protection allows H2O, O2, CO2 to diffuse in & out of cell Cell Membrane All cells Plant – inside Continue reading "Cell Functions".
Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, are the most abundant cell type in the urbanagricultureinitiative.com major blood components include plasma, white blood cells, and urbanagricultureinitiative.com primary function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen to body cells and deliver carbon dioxide to the lungs.A red blood cell has what is known as a biconcave shape.
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells nucleus the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's .
The structure and function of the cell is imperative to all living organisms and either operates as a life form itself or combines with other cells to make a larger being. There are different types of cells depending on the organism, each with a distinct structure.
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
The Theme of Structure and Function in Cells. BACK; NEXT ; Up until now, we have spent some time (OK, maybe lots of time stop looking at us like that) describing the junk, er, different components you might expect to find in different kinds of cells.