Show More to think or argue in a logical manner. Show More to think through logically, as a problem often followed by out. Show More Idioms bring someone to reason, to induce a change of opinion in someone through presentation of arguments; convince: The mother tried to bring her rebellious daughter to reason.
Chapter 1 Rhetoric and Reality in Modern American Medicine Most Americans believe that their health care system is the best in the world. To so argue is not to condemn American medicine, which admittedly has many strengths, but rather to point to rhetorical claims and practices that rest upon shaky foundations.
What we have chosen to do in this book is to present a series of case studies that illustrate the weaknesses of many prevailing beliefs and therapies.
The Contemporary American Health Care System For much of human history death was associated with the infectious diseases that took their heaviest toll among infants and children. Beginning in the late nineteenth century—for reasons that are not clearly understood—infectious diseases began to decline as the major causes of mortality.
Under these circumstances it is not surprising that long-duration illnesses—notably, cardiovascular-renal diseases and a variety of neoplasms—became more prominent elements in morbidity and mortality patterns.
These diseases were associated with advancing age; the longer individuals lived, the greater the risk of becoming ill or dying from them. To be sure, the decline in mortality from infectious diseases preceded antibiotic drug therapy. Yet the introduction of these and other drugs after World War II reshaped both medical practice and public perceptions.
If infectious diseases could be conquered by antibiotic drugs, why could not long-duration diseases also be eliminated by new medical therapies? Slowly but surely Americans, for a variety of reasons, came to believe that the medical care system could play a crucial role in conquering disease and extending longevity.
Yet Americans manifest ambivalent and even contradictory attitudes about their health care system. They take it as an article of faith that a science-based system has the capacity to reduce morbidity and mortality and thereby improve the quality of their lives.
They point with pride to a health establishment that in their eyes is superior to that of any other nation. They believe that medical schools turn out the best-trained physicians; that a vast hospital system with its array of imposing technologies provides the most up-to-date therapies; and that pharmaceutical companies have the capacity to develop innovative drugs that both treat and prevent disease.
Beneath the surface, however, there is considerable unease. Constantly rising health expenditures remain a source of concern. Millions of Americans lack health insurance and many are forced into bankruptcy because of huge medical bills resulting from various illnesses.
The increasing bureaucratization of the medical care industry has diminished the element of trust between patient and physician, giving rise to fears that doctors do not always act in the best interest of patients. For these and other reasons the authority of the medical profession has eroded in recent decades.
Nor were the sources of funding unchanged. During these years public funding of health expenditures increased from 38 to 46 percent.
The United States spends twice as much on health, compared to the median of industrialized countries. It has the highest percentage of specialized physicians as well as a vast system of hospitals equipped with the latest technology. Yet when compared with other industrialized countries, its health indicators are anything but impressive.
Among 23 industrialized nations, it ranked last in infant mortality, with rates more than double the average of the three leading countries Ireland, Japan, and Finland. It tied for last place on healthy life expectancy at age sixty.
Among nations for which data is available forthe United States ranked forty-sixth in life expectancy at birth and forty-second in infant mortality.
In obesity and smoking rates were much higher in the United States than in ten European nations. People at the bottom of the income scale have more mental and physical disabilities and die earlier than those above them, partly because of unhealthy behaviors and partly because of relative material deprivation.What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy.
Inference: The Process. Inference is a mental process by which we reach a conclusion based on specific evidence. Inferences are the stock and trade of detectives examining clues, of doctors diagnosing diseases, and of car mechanics repairing engine problems. Two lines of evidence in this case support epigenetic inheritance.
First, the low sperm count persisted into the third generation. Second, the sperm had an abnormally high level of methyl tags (a type of epigenetic tag that usually silences genes). The Intercept has obtained a cache of secret documents detailing the inner workings of the U.S.
military’s assassination program in Afghanistan, Yemen, and Somalia. The documents, provided by a. The principle of majority rule has several functions. For one, it establishes a clear mechanism for making decisions.
A majority of 50 percent plus one decides an issue or question. The Mechanism of Determining Bergman’s Rule Christopher Ruff of the John Hopkins University has conducted studies on variation of humans in to climate.
To make it simple, Ruff views the human body as a cylinder, the diameter of which represents the width of the body, or, more specifically, the width of the pelvis; the length of the cylinder.